When Pain feels like Pleasure

“His opponent had been known to cause seizures, heart attacks, and even death. But Jason McNabb looked remarkably calm as he entered the arena. The whistle blew. Assault came thick and fast – a chaotic rush of watering eyes, swollen lips and perspiration.”

This was no ordinary competition. McNabb held a world record for eating the most Bhut Jolokia peppers in two minutes. “It felt like I had a mouthful of hornets stinging me all at one time. Candidly, it was like pure hell”, he says.

“The Bhut Jolokia, or ‘ghost pepper’ can measure more than a million Scoville units – in other words, it is 200 to 400 times spicier than a jalapeno. It’s one of the hottest in the world, and anyone who takes so much as a nibble is likely to suffer excruciating pain. A reasonable question to ask is: why would anyone do this to themselves?”

(Credit: Guinness World Records)

Jason McNabb is a champion chilli-eater and describes it as “pure hell” (Credit: Guinness World Records)

 

“For McNabb, the pain from the peppers produces a rush that is similar to that produced by food, drugs or sex. “The pain subsided pretty quickly and then it was just the high of the adrenaline and euphoria from the peppers,” Jason explains.”

Why exactly do some people enjoy eye-wateringly hot curries, extreme workouts or sadomasochistic sex?

“Common sense tells us that people seek pleasure and avoid pain. But that’s not always the case – various activities involve pain, including running, hot massages, tattoos, piercings and even BDSM (an abbreviation for bondage, discipline, domination, submission, sadism and masochism).”

“The link between pleasure and pain is deeply rooted in our biology. For a start, all pain causes the central nervous system to release endorphins – proteins which act to block pain and work in a similar way to opiates such as morphine to induce feelings of euphoria.”

“The relationship will come as no surprise to those who run. Bursts of intense exertion release lactic acid, a by-product of the breakdown of glucose when oxygen is in short supply. The acid irritates pain receptors in the muscles, and these communicate their plight to the brain through electrical messages, sent through the spinal cord. The signals are interpreted as a burning sensation in the legs, usually causing the runner to slow down or stop.”

The ‘runner’s high’ may have enabled our ancestors to endure the pain of a marathon hunt

“That is until the nervous system’s control centre, the hippocampus, kicks in. This seahorse-shaped portion of the brain responds to pain signals by ordering the production of the body’s own narcotics, endorphins. The proteins bind to opioid receptors in the brain and prevent the release of chemicals involved in the transmission of pain signals. This helps block pain, but endorphins go further, stimulating the brain’s limbic and prefrontal regions – the same areas activated by passionate love affairs and music. It’s a post-pain rush similar to the high of morphine or heroin, which also bind to the brain’s opioid receptors.”

Runners get a high after a long workout, but what’s going on in the brain?

“Meanwhile, the pain of intense exercise also causes a spike in another of the body’s painkillers, anandamide. Known as the ‘bliss chemical’, it binds to cannabinoid receptors in the brain to block pain signals and induce the warm, fuzzy pleasure emulated by marijuana, which binds to the same receptors. Adrenaline, also produced in response to pain, adds to the excitement by raising the athlete’s heart rate.”

“Burning legs are thought to discourage overexertion, while the ‘runner’s high’ may have enabled our ancestors to endure the pain of a marathon hunt. More generally, the pleasurable post-pain rush is thought to have evolved to help people cope in the immediate aftermath of an injury.”

Why are some types of pain enjoyable, and others just plain agonising?

“One theory to explain it is ‘benign masochism’ – seeking out pain while maintaining the awareness that it won’t cause serious damage. It’s something animals aren’t capable of doing.”

Hot chillis can trigger pleasurable responses... eventually (Credit: Thinkstock)

Hot chillis can trigger pleasurable responses… (Credit: Thinkstock)

“One example is chilli. The active ingredient, capsaicin, is harmless. It hurts because it happens to bind to TRPV1, part of a family of temperature-sensitive receptors in our tongues which alert the body to potentially damaging heat or cold. Activating TRPV1 sends the brain the same signals as if the tongue was actually on fire.”

“Most young children are averse to chilli, but they learn to enjoy it through repeated exposure as they learn to disassociate the fruit with real physical harm. Yet chilli addicts’ tongues are just as sensitive to capsaicin as everyone else’s.”

“We rats are culinarily cunning”

“Pain is a uniquely human indulgence. Scientists have tried, and failed, to induce a preference for chilli in rats. Animals have been trained to self-harm, but only by ‘positive reinforcement’, in which animals are taught to associate pain with a reward. “Generally, when an animal experiences something negative, it avoids it,” explains Paul Rozin, from the University of Pennsylvania.”

“Benign masochism is something that those who engage in BDSM won’t find surprising. Mistress Alexandra, a professional sadist based in London, explains: “We make a difference between good pain and bad pain. Bad pain indicates that something is not right, something we have to pay instant attention to. Then there’s good pain which is enjoyable. For example, when the shoulder starts pulling during bondage, that’s potentially unsafe so we release it.”

“The theory is also thought to explain why we seek out and enjoy other intrinsically unpleasant experiences, such as fear-inducing roller-coasters or sad movies. “If an animal took a roller=coaster it would be scared, and it would never go again.” says Rozin.”

The link between sex and pain is not confined to the world of BDSM.

“One study, in which researchers used fMRI to visualise the brains of women as they stimulated themselves to climax, found that more than 30 areas of the brain were active, including those involved in pain. Another found that cancer survivors, who had nerves in their spinal cord cut to relieve chronic abdominal pain, lost the ability to have orgasms. If their pain returned, so did the orgasms.”‘

“Barry Komisaruk from Rutgers University, who authored the imaging study, thinks there’s a fundamental link between pain and orgasm pathways. “Another observation is that the facial expressions during orgasm are often indistinguishable from those in pain,” he says.”

“Along these lines, a study into how paracetamol affects emotions found that the painkilling drug not only relieves emotional pain, but also blunts feelings of pleasure. In the study, students were given either paracetamol or a placebo, and asked to rate the intensity of their emotions towards a series of provocative photographs. The drug leveled off highs as well as lows – an indicator that it operates on shared biological pathways.”

For human beings, then, it appears that pain and pleasure have always been intertwined.  Pass the chili’s . . .

http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20151001-why-pain-feels-good

Learning to Learn: You, Too, Can Rewire Your Brain – 4 Techniques to Help You Learn

A lesson from the Coursera course “Learning How to Learn.”

By PHILIP OAKLEY and BARBARA OAKLEY

1.  FOCUS and then DON’T

“The brain has two modes of thinking that Dr. Oakley simplifies as “focused,” in which learners concentrate on the material, and “diffuse,” a neural resting state in which consolidation occurs — that is, the new information can settle into the brain. (Cognitive scientists talk about task-positive networks and default-mode networks, respectively, in describing the two states.) In diffuse mode, connections between bits of information, and unexpected insights, can occur. That’s why it’s helpful to take a brief break after a burst of focused work.”

2.  TAKE A “tomato” BREAK

To accomplish those periods of focused and diffuse-mode thinking, Dr. Oakley recommends what is known as the Pomodoro Technique, developed by one Francesco Cirillo. Set a kitchen timer for a 25-minute stretch of focused work, followed by a brief reward, which includes a break for diffuse reflection. (“Pomodoro” is Italian for tomato — some timers look like tomatoes.) The reward — listening to a song, taking a walk, anything to enter a relaxed state — takes your mind off the task at hand. Precisely because you’re not thinking about the task, the brain can subconsciously consolidate the new knowledge. Dr. Oakley compares this process to “a librarian filing books away on shelves for later retrieval.”

“As a bonus, the ritual of setting the timer can also help overcome procrastination. Dr. Oakley teaches that even thinking about doing things we dislike activates the pain centers of the brain. The Pomodoro Technique, she said, “helps the mind slip into focus and begin work without thinking about the work.”

“Virtually anyone can focus for 25 minutes, and the more you practice, the easier it gets.”

3.  PRACTICE – Chunk it

“Chunking” is the process of creating a neural pattern that can be reactivated when needed. It might be an equation or a phrase in French or a guitar chord. Research shows that having a mental library of well-practiced neural chunks is necessary for developing expertise.”

“Practice brings procedural fluency, says Dr. Oakley, who compares the process to backing up a car. “When you first are learning to back up, your working memory is overwhelmed with input.” In time, “you don’t even need to think more than ‘Hey, back up,’ ” and the mind is free to think about other things.”

“Chunks build on chunks, and, she says, the neural network built upon that knowledge grows bigger. “You remember longer bits of music, for example, or more complex phrases in French.” Mastering low-level math concepts allows tackling more complex mental acrobatics. “You can easily bring them to mind even while your active focus is grappling with newer, more difficult information.”’

4.  KNOW THYSELF – Racer or Hiker?

“Dr. Oakley urges her students to understand that people learn in different ways. Those who have “race car brains” snap up information; those with “hiker brains” take longer to assimilate information but, like a hiker, perceive more details along the way. Recognizing the advantages and disadvantages, she says, is the first step in learning how to approach unfamiliar material.”

____________________________

About the Oakleys

“Barbara Oakley, a professor at Oakland University in Michigan, in her basement studio where she and her husband created “Learning How to Learn,” the most popular course of all time on Coursera.The studio for what is arguably the world’s most successful online course is tucked into a corner of Barb and Phil Oakley’s basement, a converted TV room . . .”

“This is where they put together “Learning How to Learn,” taken by more than 1.8 million students from 200 countries, the most ever on Coursera. The course provides practical advice on tackling daunting subjects and on beating procrastination, and the lessons engagingly blend neuroscience and common sense.”

“Dr. Oakley, an engineering professor at Oakland University in Rochester, Mich., created the class with Terrence Sejnowski, a neuroscientist at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, and with the University of California, San Diego.”

“Dr. Oakley said she believes that just about anyone can train himself to learn. “Students may look at math, for example, and say, ‘I can’t figure this out — it must mean I’m really stupid!’ They don’t know how their brain works.”’

“Her own feelings of inadequacy give her empathy for students who feel hopeless. “I know the hiccups and the troubles people have when they’re trying to learn something.” After all, she was her own lab rat. “I rewired my brain,” she said, “and it wasn’t easy.”’

“As a youngster, she was not a diligent student. “I flunked my way through elementary, middle school and high school math and science,” she said. She joined the Army out of high school to help pay for college and received extensive training in Russian at the Defense Language Institute. Once out, she realized she would have a better career path with a technical degree (specifically, electrical engineering), and set out to tackle math and science, training herself to grind through technical subjects with many of the techniques of practice and repetition that she had used to let Russian vocabulary and declension soak in.”

“Dr. Oakley recounts her journey in both of her best-selling books: “A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science (Even if You Flunked Algebra)” and, out this past spring, “Mindshift: Break Through Obstacles to Learning and Discover Your Hidden Potential.” The new book is about learning new skills, with a focus on career switchers.”

“Dr. Oakley is already planning her next book, another guide to learning how to learn but aimed at 10- to 13-year-olds. She wants to tell them, “Even if you are not a superstar learner, here’s how to see the great aspects of what you do have.” She would like to see learning clubs in school to help young people develop the skills they need. “We have chess clubs, we have art clubs,” she said. “We don’t have learning clubs. I just think that teaching kids how to learn is one of the greatest things we can possibly do.”

Why don’t facts matter to our inquiring minds?

“People generally see what they look for and hear what they listen for.” –Harper Lee

Tali Sharot is the author of, “The Influential Mind: What the Brain Reveals About Our Power to Change Others.” An associate professor of cognitive neuroscience, she is the director of the Affective Brain Lab at University College London. The information and opinions expressed are hers.

Why does evidence seem to have little influence on people’s beliefs?

“To many of us who study the human mind, the diminishing influence of evidence is less a puzzle than a prototypical example of how the mind forms beliefs. And the very idea that simply providing people with data would be sufficient to alter their beliefs is condemned to fail.”

“The very first thing we need to realize is that beliefs are like fast cars, designer shoes, chocolate cupcakes and exotic holidays: they affect our well-being and happiness. So just as we aspire to fill our fridge with fresh fare and our wardrobe with nice attire, we try to fill our minds with information that makes us feel strong and right, and to avoid information that makes us confused or insecure.”

“It’s not only in the domain of politics that people cherry-pick news; it is apparent when it comes to our health, wealth and relationships. Many individuals avoid medical screenings in an attempt to evade alarming information.”

Using . . .” non-invasive brain imaging techniques, my colleagues and I have recently gathered evidence that suggests our brain reacts to desirable information as it does to rewarding stimuli like food, and reacts to undesirable information as it does to aversive stimuli like electric shocks. So, just as we are motivated to seek food and avoid shocks, we are also motivated either to seek or avoid incoming information.”

Confirmation Bias

“Of course, we do not always turn away from uncomfortable data. We do undergo medical tests, face our debts and occasionally read columns written by people who hold different political views than ours. But on average we are more likely to seek confirmation of what we believe (or want to believe.

“Unfortunately, the solution is not as simple as providing people with full and accurate information. When you provide someone with new data they quickly accept evidence that confirms their preconceived notions and assess counter evidence with a critical eye.

“For example, my colleagues and I also conducted a study in which we presented information to people who believe that climate change is man-made as well as to people who were skeptics. We found that both groups strengthened their pre-existing beliefs when the new data confirmed their original position, but ignored data that challenged their views.”

“Such effects are examples of the confirmation bias. It is not new. But today, as information is more readily accessible and people are frequently exposed to different opinions and data points, this bias is likely to have an even greater role in shaping people’s beliefs — moving ideological groups to extremes.”
“And while you may assume such biases are a trait of the less intelligent, the opposite is true. Scientists discovered that those with stronger quantitative abilities are more likely to twist data at will. When volunteers in that study were given data about the effectiveness of gun control laws that did not support their views, they used their math skills not to draw more accurate conclusions, but to find fault with the numbers they were given.
Why have human beings’ brains evolved to discard perfectly valid information when it does not fit their preferred view? This seems like bad engineering, so why hasn’t this glitch been corrected?”

Confidently-held opinions are difficult to change.

“Cognitive scientists have proposed an intriguing answer: our brain assesses new information in light of the knowledge it has already stored, because in most cases that is, in fact, the optimal approach. More likely than not, when you encounter a piece of data that contradicts what you believe with confidence, that piece of data is in fact wrong.”

“They are even more difficult to change once people act on them. Research has shown that immediately after making an overt choice, our conviction strengthens as we tend to rationalize our choices to ourselves and others.”

“So while data is important for uncovering the truth, it is not enough for convincing people of that truth.”
“We should not, however, be discouraged. The solution, I believe, is not to fight the way our brain works, but to go along with it. We should take our biases into account and use them when trying to convey our truth.”

Book Look – Did You Know Your HEART RATE can influence WILLPOWER?

Always on the lookout for a magic pill for will-power we picked out this book in the library.

“The Willpower Instinct: How Self-Control Works and What You Can Do to Get More of It”  by Kelly McGonegal, PhD

Kelly McGonegal touches on a lot of measures of willpower but one of the most interesting signs or index of self control is heart rate variabilitywhich can be used to predict giving in to temptation, and is sometimes known as the body’s reserve of will power.

(Additionally, heart rate variability (HRV) decreases chronic pain, anger, depression, stress, illness.)

Why willpower flags 

1. Low blood sugar

Low blood sugar can actually predict loss of will power. Your brain interprets low blood sugar as a sign of scarcity and neurochemically increases your risk taking. (Do ANYTHING to find food NOW, so you don’t starve & die). It’s been shown people with low blood sugar take more risks.

2. Feeling tired

Fatigue is an early warning sign generated by your brain, NOT your muscles.  Will power takes energy, and your brain wisely doesn’t want to squander what energy there is on non-survival needs, like will power.  

Take inspiration from athletes who learn to push through fatigue.  Practice focusing on your goal, pushing through and experience your will-power getting stronger.

3. Thinking negatively

Your brain likes to protect your positive mood by continually seeking rewards – and giving in to temptation.  Motivating yourself by making yourself feel bad or guilty increases your stress response, decreases your willpower and makes immediate rewards more appealing.

Ways of lowering the stress response include:: exercise, religious  services, reading, music, family & friends, massage, walking, meditating, yoga, a hobby – all increase GABA and serotonin, not reward-seeking dopamine.

Willpower Brain Bootcamp  

1. Exercising 3 times a week for 15 minutes increases HRV.

2.  Go small.  Train your brain to think first before you act.  Start with small, easy things, to practice willpower.

3. “Dopaminize” tasks you don’t want to do.  McGonigal uses this term to mean make it fun: play music, do the task in a pleasant setting, put lottery tickets next to project. –you get them when you are done.

4.  Ten minute time-out 

When you wait 10 minutes your brain takes your desire/urge out of its immediate focus and into long term storage. This strengthens will power helps you delay gratification. Try this:

  • Set a timer for 10 minutes
  • Sit down, feet on floor
  • Tell your brain you can choose what to do, or not to do, in only 10 minutes 
  • Breath, meditate, pray or daydream

Kelly McGonegal lists other ways to stimulate your brain and raise your HEAR RATE VARIABILITY by:

  • eating a plant based diet
  • eliminating or reducing processed foods  
  • breathing good air quality 
  • meditating 
  • exercising
  • getting good sleep 
  • sending time with friends 
  • maintaining a spiritual practice

We’ve covered a very small sample of what is in this interesting and informative book.  She includes a lot of exercises based on research.  Now all you have to do is find the will power to get the book and read it.

      *  *  *

* “Heart rate variability (HRV) is the physiological phenomenon of variation in the time interval between heartbeats. It is measured by the variation in the beat-to-beat interval”. Wikipedia:

 

 

 

 

 

 

How many times a week to reduce pain?

Neuroscientist Kolber wanted to know if the length of time spent exercising makes a difference in the amount of relief patients get. Could boosting the exercise level, or “the dose,” bring more relief?

“Anyone who develops any drug has to go through hundreds of different tests looking at dose,” Kolber says, “but in exercise there’s almost no data about dose — especially in the context of pain.”

“He conducted a small, weeklong study measuring 40 healthy women’s sensitivity to pain before and after bouts of exercise, using heat and pressure to elicit pain. The individuals were asked to walk briskly on a treadmill for 30 minutes. Some exercised three times that week, others five or 10 times.”

“He and his team found there was no difference in pain perception after exercise for those who walked just three times a week.”

The findings were very different for the people who exercised

five times or more each week.

“We asked them to rate that pain,” he says. “And at the end of the study, they rated the same pressure — the exact same pressure — as 60% less painful than they rated it at the beginning of the study.”

Frankly Freddie, Ode to Halloween

Orange pumpkins, black cats
skeletons, and scary bats
mummies that horrify
Witches flying through the sky
Thank goodness witches aren’t like birds
screeching and dropping turds

My Halloween costume as Woofer

Check out our Halloween collection – towels, gift boxes, mugs and more at Zazzle. Click here.

And of course ME! I have my own personal link

Magnetic Personality - Refrigerator Magnet

Magnetic Personality – Refrigerator Magnet

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