Why stressed minds are more decisive

“When we’re put under pressure, our brains can suddenly process information much faster – but only in certain situations, says neuroscientist Tali Sharot.”

Some of the most important decisions you will make in your lifetime will occur while you feel stressed and anxious.

Do we become better or worse at processing and using information under such circumstances?


A perceived threat made firefighters better at processing information

“My colleague Neil Garrett, now at the Princeton Neuroscience Institute in New Jersey, and I ventured from the safety of our lab to fire stations in the state of Colorado to investigate how the mind operates under high stress.”

“Firefighters’ workdays vary quite a bit. Some days are pretty relaxed; they’ll spend part of their time washing the truck, cleaning equipment, cooking meals and reading. Other days can be hectic, with numerous life-threatening incidents to attend to; they’ll enter burning homes to rescue trapped residents, and assist with medical emergencies. These ups and downs presented the perfect setting for an experiment on how people’s ability to use information changes when they feel under pressure.”

“When you’re stressed, your brain undergoes physical changes that can make it hard to ignore possible dangers.
We found that perceived threat triggered a stress reaction that made the firefighters better at processing information – but only as long as it conveyed bad news.”

“This is how we arrived at these results. We asked the firefighters to estimate their likelihood of experiencing 40 different aversive events in their life, such as being involved in a car accident or becoming a victim of card fraud. We then gave them either good news (we told them that their likelihood of experiencing these events was lower than they’d thought) or bad news (that it was higher) and asked them to provide new estimates.”

“Cortisol levels spiked, their heart rates went up and, lo and behold, they suddenly became better at processing unrelated, yet alarming, information”

“Research has shown that people are normally quite optimistic – they will ignore the bad news and embrace the good. This is what happened when the firefighters were relaxed; but when they were under stress, a different pattern emerged. Under these conditions, they became hyper-vigilant to any bad news we gave them, even when it had nothing to do with their job (such as learning that the likelihood of card fraud was higher than they’d thought), and altered their beliefs in response. In contrast, stress didn’t change how they responded to good news (such as learning that the likelihood of card fraud was lower than they’d thought).”

“Back in our lab, we observed the same pattern in undergraduates who were told they had to give a surprise public speech, which would be judged by a panel, recorded and posted online. Sure enough, their cortisol levels spiked, their heart rates went up and, lo and behold, they suddenly became better at processing unrelated, yet alarming, information about rates of disease and violence.”

“When you experience stressful events, whether personal (waiting for a medical diagnosis) or public (political turmoil), a physiological change is triggered that can cause you to take in any sort of warning and become fixated on what might go wrong. A study using brain imaging to look at the neural activity of people under stress revealed that this ‘switch’ was related to a sudden boost in a neural signal important for learning(known as a prediction error), specifically in response to unexpected signs of danger (such as faces expressing fear). This signal relies on dopamine – a neurotransmitter found in the brain – and, under stress, dopamine function is altered by another molecule called corticotropin-releasing factor.”

“Such neural engineering could have helped early humans to survive. When our ancestors found themselves in a habitat filled with hungry animals, they benefited from an increased ability to learn about hazards so as to avoid predators. In a safe environment, however, it would be wasteful to be on high alert constantly. A certain amount of ignorance can help to keep your mind at ease.”

“So a ‘neural switch’ that automatically increases or decreases your ability to process warnings in response to changes in your environment might be useful. In fact, people with clinical depression and anxiety seem unable to switch away from a state in which they absorb all the negative messages around them.”

This article was originally published at Aeon and has been republished under Creative Commons and is edited for space.


6 comments on “Why stressed minds are more decisive

  1. A very interesting article. Still, I think a lot of people make hazardous decisions when they’re too stressed to think things through. I need time to process. Still, sometimes I respond with amazing speed, especially when someone else’s safety is at risk.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Sharon,
      Firefighters are an interesting example, since they are trained in exactly what to do in hazardous situations involving fire. If they are processing information faster, that is good, and since they know what to do they can do it quickly. I think if you do not know what to do, if the situation is unfamiliar, that would make it harder to make a good decision. Acting quickly, though, certainly is valuable when you are in danger.

      Liked by 1 person

    • Laraib,
      I know, cortisol has so many bad effects-you don’t want a lot of it and you don’t want to have it running around in your bloodstream for long. The thing about cortisol is that it is wonderful in an emergency. Say a fire breaks out in your building. Then you want cortisol–it changes your body so you can run. It is when cortisol hangs around for a while (and by that I mean more that 10 or 20 minutes) that bad things start to happen. I am guessing you know what these are. The best system to have is one that shoots up cortisol when you are in danger and lowers it immediately when you are safe. By safe I mean not in danger of death or bodily harm in the next few minutes. In modern society even if we are safe, we can feel like we are in danger and keep our cortisol levels high. I hope yours are low :).

      Liked by 1 person

      • You are right! In modern society, our brain perceives every situation as do or die ,every other threat as life threatening that makes matters worst. Btw, adrenaline is also at play in these stressful situations which shunts our blood away from our brain to our legs so we can run our famous FIGHT AND FLIGHT response


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